ADHD is a common term that we often hear today. We hear about children having ADHD and their symptoms, but we don’t hear a lot about what the causes are. In the article below Dr. Gold discusses just that. She talks about the new field of study called epigenetics which is a research study area that interplays between genetics and family environment. She is looking at the underlying genetics and the child’s family environment to see if there is a way we can support the child by improving their environment, rather than looking at symptoms. Also mentioned in this article is a child psychiatrist named Dr. Bruce Perry. He is known for his work with adopted children and advises a residential program we often use.
Dr. Gold references Michael Phelps, our famous Olympic swimmer. One family that we worked with in the past two years has a daughter that has great trouble regulating her moods and impulsivity. Rather than choosing medication as a first step, her parents recommended intense exercise, asking the doctor to hold off on any mood stabilizing medicine. While their daughter struggles, in her case, there seems to be almost a one to one correspondence between her ability to regulate her emotions and her exercise or lack thereof. Do some children need medication? Absolutely! But shouldn’t our first thought be to look beneath the symptoms and try to improve the environment?
“Labeling Child Behavior as ADHD” By Dr. Claudia M. Gold
Five-year-old Max came to see me in my pediatrics practice because his kindergarten teachers were convinced that he had ADHD. They knew little about his life, yet they were pressuring his mother, Alice, to come to me in the hopes that I would prescribe medication, because his behavior in class was increasingly disruptive. Alice came to the first visit armed with the standard forms, indicating that he had scored in the high range for ADHD.
My approach to the diagnosis of ADHD, up a startling 29% according to a recent CDC report, has grown out of over 20 years practicing general and behavioral pediatrics, while simultaneously studying contemporary developmental science at the interface of genetics, psychology and neuroscience. I have come to recognize the essential role of understanding the meaning of behavior, rather than responding simply to the behavior itself, in promoting healthy emotional development.
Evaluation and treatment of ADHD is currently focused on behavioral symptoms, primarily hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. Rating scales are routinely used for diagnostic evaluation, and if a child has enough of the behaviors, or symptoms, treatment with medication is often recommended. But we should be asking: “Symptoms of what?” In other areas of medicine, we treat the underlying cause, not simply the symptom. In treating bacterial pneumonia, for example, we use an antibiotic, not a cough suppressant.
These behaviors are, in fact, symptoms of problems with regulation of behavior, emotions, and attention, which together may be labeled as ADHD. So the question becomes not “How do we control the symptoms?” but rather “What is making self-regulation difficult for this particular child?” followed by “What can we do to help promote self-regulation?”
Typically the “problem” of ADHD is viewed as residing exclusively in the child. Extensive research has shown, however, that children develop the capacity for self-regulation in relationships. Exploring family relationships is an essential first step.
Family conflict may go unaddressed while focusing exclusively on management of a child’s symptoms. While certainly there is a strong genetic influence in ADHD, research in the growing discipline known as “epigenetics” shows the complex interplay of genetics and family environment in determining the development of any one individual child.
For example, a study last spring shows that a person might have a gene that puts him at risk for ADHD. But if that person lives in a home filled with conflict, he is more likely to actually have ADHD. Put in a more positive way, just because a child has the gene, it doesn’t mean he will have the disorder. Addressing family conflict may protect him from the genetic risk.
Research by psychiatrist Bruce Perry has shown that physical activities are another necessary first step for a child who is “dysregulated.” These activities actually calm the brain down. Extracurricular activities, if they are carefully planned and well thought out, are an essential part of treatment. It is best to have some kind of a calming activity interspersed with homework, tutoring or therapy.
Many know the story of Michael Phelps’ struggle with ADHD. Swimming can be a very regulating activity, but some kids with learning and behavior problems also have sensory processing difficulties and can’t stand to have their head under water. Clearly swimming isn’t the right choice for them. Horseback riding, martial arts, drumming and dance are examples of other activities that can serve to achieve this kind of calm.
The first two steps in helping a child with symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity are, therefore, to find a regulating activity and to address family conflict. Third, medication may be considered.
– See more at: Calming your child’s ADHD Symptoms